The following course in Theory Pedagogy and Andragogy is provided in its entirety by Atlantic International University's "Open Access Initiative " which strives to make knowledge and education readily available to those seeking advancement regardless of their socio-economic situation, location or other previously limiting factors. The University's Open Courses are free and do not require any purchase or registration, they are open to the public.
The course in Theory Pedagogy and Andragogy contains the following:
The Administrative Staff may be part of a degree program paying up to three college credits. The lessons of the course can be taken on line Through distance learning. The content and access are open to the public according to the "Open Access" and " Open Access " Atlantic International University initiative. Participants who wish to receive credit and / or term certificate , must register as students.
This course will cover the fundamentals of pedagogy and andragogy, as well as examine different theories in learning. We will analyze the particular characteristics of adult learning, identifying the contributions of theoretical and scientific support to andragogy, its principles and applications. Also we will evaluate the concept and importance of permanent or life-long education. Hopefully you will come away with a better sense of how humans learn and how you in particular can continue to learn.
What is learning? Learning involves change. It is concerned with the acquisition of habits, knowledge, and attitudes. It enables the individual to make both personal and social adjustments. Since the concept of change is inherent in the concept of learning, any change in behavior implies that learning is taking place or has taken place.
Dissatisfaction with behaviorism’s strict focus on observable behavior led educational psychologists such as Jean Piaget and William Perry to demand an approach to learning theory that paid more attention to what went on “inside the learner’s head.” They developed a cognitive approach that focused on mental processes rather than observable behavior. Common to most cognitivist approaches is the idea that knowledge comprises symbolic mental representations, such as propositions and images, together with a mechanism that operates on those representations. Knowledge is seen as something that is actively constructed by learners based on their existing cognitive structures. Therefore, learning is relative to their stage of cognitive development; understanding the learner's existing intellectual framework is central to understanding the learning process.Lecture Materials
Lesson 3: EDUCATION IN AMERICA
Learning in the United States is in trouble. The world’s most powerful nation trails far behind in education rankings. Nineteen countries and education systems scored higher than the United States in reading on the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment, or PISA, up from nine systems when the test was last administered in 2009. In mathematics, 29 nations and other jurisdictions outperformed the United States by a statistically significant margin, up from 23 three years ago. In science, 22 education systems scored above the U.S. average, up from 18 in 2009.
Lesson 4: Education the Youth
Students necessarily have only a limited exposure to the materials they learn, they are only in school a limited number of hours and they have others things that take up their time. How can this limited exposure be made to count in their thinking for the rest of their lives? The answer lies in giving students an understanding of the fundamental structure of whatever subjects we choose to teach. This is the minimum requirement for using knowledge, for bringing it to bear on problems and events one encounters outside a classroom, or in classrooms one enters later in one’s training. Studies have stimulated a renewed interest in complex learning of a kind that one finds in schools, learning designed to produce general understanding of the structure of a subject matter. The teaching and learning of structure, rather than simply master of facts and techniques, is at the center of the classic problem of transfer.
Lesson 5: Readiness to Learn
Research on the intellectual development of the child highlights the fact that each stage of development the child has a characteristic way of viewing the world and explaining it to himself. The task of teaching a subject to a child at any particular stage is one of representing the structure of that subject in terms of the child’s way of viewing things. The task can be thought of as one of translation. In this way any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any school aged child at any stage of development. Education interventions work best if they match a person’s state of readiness.Lecture Materials
Lesson 6: INTRO ANDRAGOGY
There has been a general lack of thinking, investigating, and writing about adult learning until recently. This is surprising considering that all of the great teachers of ancient times, Confucius and Laozi of China; Hebrew prophets and Jesus in Biblical times; Aristotle, Socrates, and Plato in ancient Greece; Cicero, Euclid, Quintilian in ancient Rome; all of these were teachers of men, not children. Because their experience was with adults, they came to have a very different concept of the learning/teaching process from the one that later came to dominate formal education. They perceived learning to be a process of active inquiry, not passive reception of transmitted content.Lecture Materials
Lesson 7: CONTRIBUTIONS from the social sciences
The central role of self-concept in human development (and learning) received increasing reinforcement from the entire field of psychiatry as it moved away from the medical model toward an educational model in its research and its practice. In the earlier half of the 20th century there were 2 dominant theories in the behavioral sciences. Freudianism and behaviorism, in which Freud placed major motivational emphasis on deep inner drives and urges and the behaviorists placed the emphasis on external, environmental influences. Freud, like Darwin and the behaviorists, saw man as merely another type of animal, with no essential differences from animals and with the same anti-social tendencies. Psychologists like Maslow who investigated how humans learn were concerned with the study and development of fully functioning or self-actualizing persons. They are critical of the approach used in the physical sciences and by the behaviorists, breaking things down into their component parts and studying them separately.Lecture Materials
Lesson 8: SHOWS STATISTICS
Before describing the andragogical assumptions about learners and learning, it is helpful to look at what we mean by “adult”; there are a few definitions to see. First, the biological definition: we become adult biologically when we reach the age at which we can reproduce, which is in early adolescence for most. The legal definition: we become adult when we reach the age at which the law says we can vote, obtain a drivers license, marry without parental consent, and the like. The social definition: we become adult socially when we start performing adult roles, such as that of a worker, a spouse, parent, voting citizen, and the like. Finally the psychological definition: we become adult psychologically when we arrive at a self-concept of being responsible for our own lives, of being self-directing. From the viewpoint of learning, it is the psychological definition that is most crucial.Lecture Materials
Lesson 9: THEORIES IN TEACHING
A distinction can be made between theories of learning and theories of teaching. Whiles theories of learning deal with the ways in which an organism learns, theories of teaching deal with the ways in which a person influences an organism to learn. Presumably, the learning theory subscribed to by a teacher will influences his theory of teaching.
Teachers who hold stimulus response (S-R) learning theories see teaching essentially as the control of learning by the management of reward. The teacher and learner must know the characteristics of a good performance in order that practice may be appropriately arranged. Errors must be diagnosed so that they will not be repeated.Lecture Materials
Lesson 10: LIFELONG LEARNING: A NECESSITY
For the first twenty-two years or so of our lives, our main “job” is learning. The bulk of our time is spent in classrooms acquiring new knowledge. And then, once we graduate, we feel like the education phase of our lives is done and now it’s time to go out into the world. Have you ever thought about how odd that idea is? That only a quarter of our lives should be devoted to learning, and then we should simply rest on our laurels for the remaining three-quarters of it? It’s an erroneous idea – but one many have absorbed, at least subconsciously. But school need not be your exclusive provider of learning. Just because you’ve finished your formal education, doesn’t mean that your education is over!Lecture Materials
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