The following course inIntroduction to Analysis of Materials is provided in its entirety by Atlantic International University's "Open Access Initiative " which strives to make knowledge and education readily available to those seeking advancement regardless of their socio-economic situation, location or other previously limiting factors. The University's Open Courses are free and do not require any purchase or registration, they are open to the public.
The course in Analysis of Materials contains the following:
The Administrative Staff may be part of a degree program paying up to three college credits. The lessons of the course can be taken on line Through distance learning. The content and access are open to the public according to the "Open Access" and " Open Access " Atlantic International University initiative. Participants who wish to receive credit and / or term certificate , must register as students.
A raw material or feedstock is basic material used in the production of goods, finished products or intermediate materials that are themselves feedstock for finished products. As feedstock, the term connotes a bottleneck asset critical to the production of other products. For example, crude oil is a feedstock raw material providing finished products in the fuel, plastic, industrial chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The term "raw material" is used to denote material is in an unprocessed or minimally processed state; e.g., raw latex, coal, iron ore, logs, crude oil, air or seawater. The use of raw material by non-human species includes twigs and found objects as used by birds to make nests.
ExamLesson 2: MATERIALS II
About three quarters of the elements available can be classified as metals, and about half of these are of at least some industrial or commercial importance. Although the word metal, by strict definition, is limited to the pure metal elements, common usage gives it wider scope to include metal alloys. Although pure metallic elements have a broad range of properties, they are quite limited in commercial use. Metal alloys, which are combinations of two or more elements, are far more versatile and for this reason are the form in which most metals are used by industry.
Lesson 3: THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALS
In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms or molecules in a crystalline liquid or solid. A crystal structure describes a highly ordered structure, occurring due to the intrinsic nature of molecules to form symmetric patterns. A crystal structure can be thought of as an infinitely repeating array of 3D 'boxes', known as unit cells. The unit cell is calculated from the simplest possible representation of molecules, known as the asymmetric unit. The asymmetric unit is translated to the unit cell through symmetry operations, and the resultant crystal lattice is constructed through repetition of the unit cell infinitely in 3-dimensions. Patterns are located upon the points of a lattice, which is an array of points repeating periodically in three dimensions. The lengths of the edges of a unit cell and the angles between them are called the lattice parameters. The symmetry properties of the crystal are embodied in its space group.
Lesson 4: THE STRUCTURE OF OTHER MATERIALS
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles (detritus) to settle and accumulate or minerals to precipitate from a solution. Particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating what are called sediment. Before being deposited, sediment was formed by weathering and erosion in a source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers which are called agents of denudation.
Lesson 5: PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
We are all surrounded by matter on a daily basis. Anything that we use, touch, eat, etc. is an example of matter. Matter can be defined or described as anything that takes up space, and it is composed of miniscule particles called atoms. It must display the two properties of mass and inertia. The different types of matter can be distinguished through two components: composition and properties. The composition of matter refers to the different components of matter along with their relative proportions. The properties of matter refer to the qualities/attributes that distinguish one sample of matter from another. These properties are generally grouped into two categories: physical or chemical.
Lesson 6: COMPLEMENTARY PROPERTIES OF ECOLOGY
Ecology has a complex origin, due in large part to its interdisciplinary nature. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle were among the first to record observations on natural history. However, they viewed life in terms of essentialism, where species were conceptualized as static unchanging things while varieties were seen as aberrations of an idealized type. This contrasts against the modern understanding of ecological theory where varieties are viewed as the real phenomena of interest and having a role in the origins of adaptations by means of natural selection. Early conceptions of ecology, such as a balance and regulation in nature can be traced to Herodotus (died c. 425 BC), who described one of the earliest accounts of mutualism in his observation of "natural dentistry". Basking Nile crocodiles, he noted, would open their mouths to give sandpipers safe access to pluck leeches out, giving nutrition to the sandpiper and oral hygiene for the crocodile.
Lesson 7: APPLICATION OF MATERIALS I
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water.
Mining of stone and metal has been done since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed.
Lesson 8: APPLICATION OF MATERIALS II
Materials science, also commonly known as materials science and engineering, is an interdisciplinary field which deals with the discovery and design of new materials. This relatively new scientific field involves studying materials through the materials paradigm (synthesis, structure, properties and performance). It incorporates elements of physics and chemistry, and is at the forefront of nanoscience and nanotechnology research. In recent years, materials science has become more widely known as a specific field of science and engineering. It is an important part of forensic engineering (the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property) and failure analysis, the latter being the key to understanding, for example, the cause of various aviation accidents.
Lesson 9: APPLICATION OF MATERIALS III
Synthesis and processing involves the creation of materials with the desired micro/nanostructure. From an engineering standpoint, materials cannot be used in industry if no economical manufacturing method for it has been developed. Thus, the processing of materials is very important to the field of materials science. Different materials require different processing/synthesis techniques. For example, the processing of metals has historically been very important as is studied under the branch of materials science known as physical metallurgy. Also, chemical and physical techniques are also used to synthesize other materials such as polymers, ceramics, thin films, etc. Currently, new techniques are being developed to synthesis nanomaterials such as graphene
Lesson 10: SMART MATERIALS
Scientists have not unanimously settled on a precise definition of nanomaterials, but agree that they are partially characterized by their tiny size, measured in nanometers. A nanometer is one millionth of a millimeter - approximately 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. Nano-sized particles exist in nature and can be created from a variety of products, such as carbon or minerals like silver, but nanomaterials by definition must have at least one dimension that is less than approximately 100 nanometers. Most nanoscale materials are too small to be seen with the naked eye and even with conventional lab microscopes.
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