The following course in Basic Processes of Thought and Brain Gym is provided in its entirety by Atlantic International University's "Open Access Initiative " which strives to make knowledge and education readily available to those seeking advancement regardless of their socio-economic situation, location or other previously limiting factors. The University's Open Courses are free and do not require any purchase or registration, they are open to the public.
The course in Basic Processes of Thought and Brain Gym contains the following:
The Administrative Staff may be part of a degree program paying up to three college credits. The lessons of the course can be taken on line Through distance learning. The content and access are open to the public according to the "Open Access" and " Open Access " Atlantic International University initiative. Participants who wish to receive credit and / or term certificate , must register as students.
Thought can refer to the ideas or arrangements of ideas that result from thinking, the act of producing thoughts, or the process of producing thoughts. Despite the fact that thought is a fundamental human activity familiar to everyone, there is no generally accepted agreement as to what thought is or how it is created. Thoughts are the result or product of spontaneous acts of thinking.
Because thought underlies many human actions and interactions, understanding its physical and metaphysical origins, processes, and effects has been a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines including artificial intelligence, biology, philosophy, psychology, and sociology.
Language is, today, an inseparable part of human society. Human civilization has been possible only through language. It is through language only that humanity has come out of the stone age and has developed science, art and technology in a big way. Language is a means of communication, it is arbitrary, it is a system of systems. We know that Speech is primary while writing is secondary. Language is human so it differs from animal communication in several ways. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. Some of these features may be part of animal communication; yet they do not form part of it in total.
Lesson 3: MAIN THEORIES ON ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT DEL LANGUAGE
By the 1920s John B. Watson had left academic psychology and other behaviorists were becoming influential, proposing new forms of learning other than classical conditioning.
Perhaps the most important of these was Burrhus Frederic Skinner; Although, for obvious reasons he is more commonly known as B.F. Skinner.
Skinner's views were slightly less extreme than those of Watson. Skinner believed that we do have such a thing as a mind, but that it is simply more productive to study observable behavior rather than internal mental events.
Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning.
Skinner's theory of operant conditioning was based on the work of Thorndike (1905). Edward Thorndike studied learning in animals using a puzzle box to propose the theory known as the 'Law of Effect'.
Lesson 4: Poverty: A historical context, continued
By the middle of the 19th century we see a sustained movement out of poverty for those parts of the world that were industrializing, mostly in Europe. Europe had become the center of accumulation of wealth and power, with the rest of the world progressively being submitted to its rule. The just ending slave trade had devastated Africa, and the Spanish colonization of South America had left its native population barely clinging to survival. The whole of the European imperial project in economic terms creates a vast amount of the world’s poor and is the origin of the notion of the third world. These 3rd world locations were often exploited by wealthy capitalists for their natural resources, which were then shipped off to other countries; this exploitation left in its wake intense poverty, lack of infrastructure, and massive disease burden for the native populations.
Gradually industrialization began springing up in the late 19th in other parts of the world. You see the same things you saw in Europe now in India, China, and Latin America. There is a rise in science and technology, which allows for increased agricultural productivity. With the new form of economy comes a new level of inequality never before witnessed. Fewer people are starving and yet there is still a massive underclass serving the rich, and there is still rampant poverty.
Lesson 5: THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE THEORY: Emotional intelligence (EI)
The ability model, developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer, focuses on the individual's ability to process emotional information and use it to navigate the social environment. The trait model as developed by Konstantin Vasily Petrides, "encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured through self report" The final model, the mixed model is a combination of both ability and trait EI. It defines EI as an array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance, as proposed by Daniel Goleman. Studies have shown that people with high EI have greater mental health, exemplary job performance, and more potent leadership skills. Markers of EI and methods of developing it have become more widely coveted in the past few decades.
Lesson 6: OBSERVATION, CLASSIFICATION AND CONCEPTS
The perceptual process allows us to experience the world around us. Take a moment to think of all the things you perceive on a daily basis. At any given moment, you might see familiar objects in your environment, feel the touch of objects and people against your skin, smell the aroma of a home-cooked meal and hear the sound of music playing in your next door neighbor's apartment. All of these things help make up our conscious experience and allow us to interact with the people and objects around us.
Lesson 7: Relations
While all relationships tell about the correspondence between two variables, there is a special type of relationship that holds that the two variables are not only in correspondence, but that one causes the other. This is the key distinction between a simple correlational relationship and a causal relationship. A correlational relationship simply says that two things perform in a synchronized manner. For instance, there has often been talk of a relationship between ability in math and proficiency in music. In general people who are good in one may have a greater tendency to be good in the other; those who are poor in one may also tend to be poor in the other. If this relatioship is true, then we can say that the two variables are correlated. But knowing that two variables are correlated does not tell us whether one causes the other. We know, for instance, that there is a correlation between the number of roads built in Europe and the number of children born in the United States. Does that mean that if we want fewer children in the U.S., we should stop building so many roads in Europe?
Lesson 8: Schema of thought
In psychology and cognitive science, a schema (plural schemata or schemas) describes an organized pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them. It can also be described as a mental structure of preconceived ideas, a framework representing some aspect of the world, or a system of organizing and perceiving new information. Schemata influence attention and the absorption of new knowledge: people are more likely to notice things that fit into their schema, while re-interpreting contradictions to the schema as exceptions or distorting them to fit. Schemata have a tendency to remain unchanged, even in the face of contradictory information. Schemata can help in understanding the world and the rapidly changing environment. People can organize new perceptions into schemata quickly as most situations do not require complex thought when using schema, since automatic thought is all that is required.
Lesson 9: Creativity
Divergent thinking is measured using Torrance test of creative thinking (TTCT) TTCT consist of both verbal and figural parts. Divergent thinking is also measured by Guilford's Alternate uses task n which one has to come up with as many uses as possible for a common household item. . These creativity test results are scored keeping in mind a number of different creativity criteria. The most common criteria are: 1. Fluency: which captures the ability to come up with many diverse ideas quickly. This is measured by the total number of ideas generated. I call this the speed of ideation 2. Flexibility: which captures the ability to cross boundaries and make remote associations. This is measured by number of different categories of ideas generated. I call this the breadth of ideation. 3. Originality: which measures how statistically different or novel the ideas are compared to a comparison group. His is measured as number of novel ideas. I call this the uniqueness /novelty of ideation. 4. Elaboration: which measure the amount of detail associated with the idea. This I think is not relevant to creativity per se (as per my limited definition of creativity) , but elaboration has more to do with focussing on each solution/idea and developing it further - perhaps a responsibility more in alignment with that of Intelligence. I call this depth of ideation.
Lesson 10: Brain gymnastics
Brain Gym is a program involving a sequence of activities believed to improve academic performance. The 26 Brain Gym activities are claimed to foster eye teaming, spatial and listening skills, hand-eye coordination, and whole-body flexibility, and so activate the brain for optimal storage and retrieval of information. Numerous books have been written describing research and case studies in which use of the Brain Gym activities has benefited specific populations, including children recovering from burn injuries and those diagnosed with autism. The Brain Gym activities have been incorporated into many educational, sports, business, and seniors programs throughout the world. They are also widely used in British state schools. The program has been criticised as pseudoscience for the lack of references in some of the theories used in the 1994 Brain Gym: Teacher's Edition (revised in 2010) and for the absence of peer review research that performing the activities has a direct effect on academic performance.
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