|Distribution and Logistics
The following course in Distribution and Logistics is provided in its entirety by Atlantic
International University's "Open
Access Initiative" which strives to make knowledge
and education readily available to those seeking advancement
regardless of their socio-economic situation, location
or other previously limiting factors. The University's
Open Courses are
free and do not require any purchase or registration,
they are open to the public.
The course in Distribution and Logistics contains the following:
- Lessons in video format with explaination of theoratical content.
- Complementary activities that will make research more about the topic , as well as put into practice what you studied in the lesson. These activities are not part of their final evaluation.
- Texts supporting explained in the video.
- Evaluation questionnaire, that will grant access to the next lesson after approval.
- Final exam for overall evaluation of the course.
The Administrative Staff may be part of a degree program paying up to three college credits. The lessons of the course can be taken on line Through distance learning. The content and access are open to the public according to the "Open Access" and " Open Access " Atlantic International University initiative. Participants who wish to receive credit and / or term certificate , must register as students.
Lesson 1: Logistics
Logistics is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet some requirements, for example, of customers or corporations. The resources managed in logistics can include physical items, such as food, materials, animals, equipment and liquids, as well as abstract items, such as time, information, particles, and energy. The logistics of physical items usually involves the integration of information flow, material handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, warehousing, and often security. The complexity of logistics can be modeled, analyzed, visualized, and optimized by dedicated simulation software. The minimization of the use of resources is a common motivation in logistics for import and export.
Lesson 2: Logistics complement
Unit loads for transportation of luggage at the airport, in this case the unit load has protective function.
Order processing is a sequential process involving: processing withdrawal list, picking (selective removal of items from loading units), sorting (assembling items based on destination), package formation (weighting, labeling and packing), order consolidation (gathering packages into loading units for transportation, control and bill of lading).
Unit loads are combinations of individual items which are moved by handling systems, usually employing a pallet of normed dimensions.
Handling systems include: trans-pallet handlers, counterweight handler, retractable mast handler, bilateral handlers, trilateral handlers, AGV and stacker handlers. Storage systems include: pile stocking, cell racks (either static or movable), cantilever racks and gravity racks.
Lesson 3: Cargo
Cargo (or freight) is goods or produce transported, generally for commercial gain, by ship or aircraft, although the term is now extended to intermodal train, van or truck. In modern times, containers are used in most long-haul cargo transport.
Break bulk cargo is typically material stacked on pallets and lifted into and out of the hold of a vessel by cranes on the dock or aboard the ship itself. The volume of break bulk cargo has declined dramatically worldwide as containerization has grown. One way to secure break bulk and freight in intermodal containers is by using Dunnage Bags
Lesson 4: Cargo airline, Cargo sampling, Cargo scanning and delivery
Air transport is a vital component of many international logistics networks, essential to managing and controlling the flow of goods, energy, information and other resources like products, services, and people, from the source of production to the marketplace. It is difficult or nearly impossible to accomplish any international trading, global export/import processes, international repositioning of raw materials/products and manufacturing without a professional logistical support. It involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material handling, and packaging. The operating responsibility of logistics is the geographical repositioning of raw materials, work in process, and finished inventories where required at the lowest cost possible.
Lesson 5: Freight company, Freight Transport Association, Standard Carrier Alpha Code and Document automation
Freight Companies are companies that specialize in the moving (or "forwarding") of freight, or cargo, from one place to another. These companies are divided into several variant sections. For example, international freight forwarders ship goods internationally from country to country, and domestic freight forwarders, ship goods within a single country.
There are thousands of freight companies in business worldwide, many of which are members of certain organizations. Such organizations include the IATA (International Air Transport Association), TIA (Transportation Intermediaries Association) the BIFA (British International Freight Association), or the FTA (Freight Transport Association) and various or other regional organizations.
Lesson 6: Freight claim, Logistics automation and Performance-based logistics
A Freight claim is a legal demand by a shipper or consignee to a carrier for financial reimbursement for a loss or damage of a shipment. Freight claims are also known as shipping claims, cargo claims, transportation claims, or loss and damage claims.
The intention of a freight claim is for the carrier to make the shipper or consignee “whole” – that is to say, their position is as good as it would have been if the carrier had carried out their tasks according to the Bill of Lading. For this reason, claimants are generally expected to file a claim to recover their costs, not including profits, although in some rare cases claiming profits may be considered acceptable.
Claimants are also expected to take reasonable measures to mitigate the loss. For example, if the damaged product has retained some value, the carrier would only be required to pay for the difference between the original value and the damaged value. The claimant would then be free to salvage the damaged product by selling it at a reduced cost
Lesson 7: Distribution (business) and Agricultural marketing
Product distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by a consumer or business user, using direct means, or using indirect means with intermediaries.
The other three parts of the marketing mix are product, pricing, and promotion.
Lesson 8: All-commodity volume
All-commodity volume (value) or ACV represents the total annual sales volume of retailers that can be aggregated from individual store-level up to larger geographical sets. This measure is a ratio, and so is typically measured as a percentage (or on a scale from 0 to 100).
The total dollar sales that go into ACV include the entire store inventory sales, rather than sales for a specific category of products – hence the term "all commodity volume."
ACV is best related to the key marketing concept of placement (Distribution). Distribution metrics quantify the availability of products sold through retailers, usually as a percentage of all potential outlets. Often, outlets are weighted by their share of category sales or "all-commodity" sales. For marketers who sell through resellers, distribution metrics reveal a brand's percentage of market access. Balancing a firm's efforts in "push" (building and maintaining reseller and distribution support) and "pull" (generating customer demand) is an ongoing strategic concern for marketers.
Lesson 9: Import and export
An import is a good brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an external source. The purchaser of the exotic good is called an importer. An import in the receiving country is an export from the sending country. Importation and exportation are the defining financial transactions of international trade.
In international trade, the importation and exportation of goods are limited by import quotas and mandates from the customs authority. The importing and exporting jurisdictions may impose a tariff (tax) on the goods. In addition, the importation and exportation of goods are subject to trade agreements between the importing and exporting jurisdictions.
Lesson 10: Incoterms
The Incoterms rules or International Commercial Terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) that are widely used in International commercial transactions or procurement processes. A series of three-letter trade terms related to common contractual sales practices, the Incoterms rules are intended primarily to clearly communicate the tasks, costs, and risks associated with the transportation and delivery of goods.
The Incoterms rules are accepted by governments, legal authorities, and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. They are intended to reduce or remove altogether uncertainties arising from different interpretation of the rules in different countries. As such they are regularly incorporated into sales contracts worldwide.
First published in 1936, the Incoterms rules have been periodically updated, with the eighth version—Incoterms 2010—having been published on January 1, 2011. "Incoterms" is a registered trademark of the ICC.
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