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Financial Tools
 
 
Financial Tools
Course in Business Comunications
 
Financial Tools

The following course inIntroduction to Financial Toolsis provided in its entirety by Atlantic International University's "Open Access Initiative" which strives to make knowledge and education readily available to those seeking advancement regardless of their socio-economic situation, location or other previously limiting factors. The University's Open Courses are free and do not require any purchase or registration, they are open to the public.

The course in Financial Tools contains the following:

  • Lessons in video format with explaination of theoratical content.
  • Complementary activities that will make research more about the topic , as well as put into practice what you studied in the lesson. These activities are not part of their final evaluation.
  • Texts supporting explained in the video.

The Administrative Staff may be part of a degree program paying up to three college credits. The lessons of the course can be taken on line Through distance learning. The content and access are open to the public according to the "Open Access" and " Open Access " Atlantic International University initiative. Participants who wish to receive credit and / or term certificate , must register as students.


Lesson 1: STUDIES OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Financial analysis is part of management accounting. Management accounting in a type of accounting that uses managers to study financial information of a company. They analyze the information and their primary purpose is to provide ideas internally to enhance the company's profitability strategies. All the information they analyze is given to them from financial accountants. o Management accountants do not prepare any of the daily financial work of a company. They are simply given the information and their job is to analyze and investigate the information they are given. The information they use for analyzing is company financial statements and other types of reports.

 

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Lesson 2: DEFINITION

A budget is a quantitative expression of a plan for a defined period of time. It may include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows. It expresses strategic plans of business units, organizations, activities or events in measurable terms.
Budgeting lies at the foundation of every financial plan. It doesn’t matter if you’re living paycheck to paycheck or earning six-figures a year, you need to know where your money is going if you want to have a handle on your finances. Unlike what you might believe, budgeting isn’t all about restricting what you spend money on and cutting out all the fun in your life. It’s really about understanding how much money you have, where it goes, and then planning how to best allocate those funds. Here’s everything you need to help you create and maintain a budget.

 

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Lesson 3: CAPITAL BUDGET

Capital budgeting (or investment appraisal) is the planning process used to determine whether an organization's long term investments such as new machinery, replacement machinery, new plants, new products, and research development projects are worth the funding of cash through the firm's capitalization structure (debt, equity or retained earnings). It is the process of allocating resources for major capital, or investment, expenditures. One of the primary goals of capital budgeting investments is to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders.

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Lesson 4: PRIMARY CHARACTERISTICS

A financial statement discloses a company’s financial status by showing what a company has and what it owes. An accurate financial statement of the company is required by the SEC (Securities Exchange Commission). There are four types of financial statements: a balance sheet, an income statement, a cash flow statement and a statement of shareholder’s

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Lesson 5: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BALANCE SHEET

A financial statement that summarizes a company's assets, liabilities and shareholders' equity at a specific point in time. These three balance sheet segments give investors an idea as to what the company owns and owes, as well as the amount invested by the shareholders.

It's called a balance sheet because the two sides balance out. This makes sense: a company has to pay for all the things it has (assets) by either borrowing money (liabilities) or getting it from shareholders (shareholders' equity).

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Lesson 6: STATUS RESULTS, INCOME, EXPENSES AND PROFIT

The income statement is a financial accounting report showing a company's income (earnings) for a given time period, including primarily the period's revenues and expenses that result in that income.

Income is viewed as a measure of a company's earning performance for a specific time period. Earning income is a top-level objective for profit-making companies: income increases owner value through retained earnings (which build owner equity) and through dividends paid directly to owners.

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Lesson 7: STUDY OF THE METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS


The larger an organization grows, the more income and expenses the organization will acquire. To make sure smart financial decisions are made, organizations must be able to understand their finances. For grant awarding organizations to put grant money to the best use and for investors to know which companies they should invest in, the finances of these organizations must be studied and scrutinized. This heavy analysis is often handled by fiscal analysts.

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Lesson 8: THE SENIOR MANAGER AND THE COMPLIANCE WITH TAX OBLIGATIONS

Tax managers are responsible for devising, implementing and overseeing the tax plan for a business or client and performing managerial functions in the office. They prepare the required government documents concerning taxes, ensure the accuracy of these documents, and offer solutions to pressing tax problems. Depending on the client, the amount of education, and experience required, managers must be familiar with international, domestic, state, and local tax laws. A tax manager is typically considered an experienced, trusted adviser to senior management and is capable of working with a diverse group of people to further the goals of the company. The primary responsibility of a tax manager is to accurately and efficiently manage tax reporting and planning and ensure compliance of tax laws for the company or client.

 

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Lesson 9: ALTERNATIVE TAX

The alternative minimum tax (AMT) is an income tax imposed by the United States federal government on individuals, corporations, estates, and trusts. AMT is imposed at a nearly flat rate on an adjusted amount of taxable income above a certain threshold (also known as exemption). This exemption is substantially higher than the exemption from regular income tax. Regular taxable income is adjusted for certain items computed differently for AMT, such as depreciation and medical expenses. No deduction is allowed for state taxes or miscellaneous itemized deductions in computing AMT income. Taxpayers with incomes above the exemption whose regular Federal income tax is below the amount of AMT must pay the higher AMT amount.

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Lesson 10: TOOLS OF FISCAL STRATEGY

Fiscal policy is one tool a government has to achieve its economic and social objectives. The operation of fiscal policy is governed by the Public Finance Act 1989 (PFA). The Act requires the Government to outline its fiscal policy intentions in the annual Fiscal Strategy Report(FSR). The FSR sets out the Government's long-term fiscal objectives relating to expenses, revenue, the operating balance, debt and net worth over a period of at least 10 years. The Fiscal Strategy Model (FSM) projects the financial performance and the financial position of the government over a medium-term horizon and is normally published with the latest Economic and Fiscal Update.

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