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Theory and Technique of the Interview ll
 
 
Theory and Technique of the Interview ll
Course in Business Comunications
 
Theory and Technique of the Interview ll

The following course in Theory and Technique of the Interview ll is provided in its entirety by Atlantic International University's "Open Access Initiative" which strives to make knowledge and education readily available to those seeking advancement regardless of their socio-economic situation, location or other previously limiting factors. The University's Open Courses are free and do not require any purchase or registration, they are open to the public.

The course in Theory and Technique of the Interview ll Learning contains the following:

  • Lessons in video format with explaination of theoratical content.
  • Complementary activities that will make research more about the topic , as well as put into practice what you studied in the lesson. These activities are not part of their final evaluation.
  • Texts supporting explained in the video.
  • Evaluation questionnaire, that will grant access to the next lesson after approval.

The Administrative Staff may be part of a degree program paying up to three college credits. The lessons of the course can be taken on line Through distance learning. The content and access are open to the public according to the "Open Access" and " Open Access " Atlantic International University initiative. Participants who wish to receive credit and / or term certificate , must register as students.


Lesson 1: THE HUMANISTIC FRAMEWORK FOR INTERVIEWER SKILLS

Research interviews have been portrayed in a variety of different ways, but they can most simply be seen as a conversation between an interviewer and respondent, which sets out to provide data for the former. As such all interviews have their basis in human interaction. An awareness and knowledge of interpersonal skills has been an invaluable asset to the inquiry process, so it seems sensible to use theory which addresses human interaction in order to make sense of the processes involved. The framework offered here is based on the humanistic psychology of Carl Rogers, which forms the basis for much contemporary work in human relations and interpersonal skills development. The purpose of this humanistic framework is to raise awareness of the means by which interviewers can move towards influencing the interview interaction in facilitative ways, and mirrors Rogers' pragmatic concerns with understanding and enhancing human interaction. Rogers' argues that there are three fundamental attitudinal qualities in facilitative relationships.


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Lesson 2: HUMANISTIC FRAMEWORK: VERBAL AND NONVERBAL SKILLS

Verbal skills largely pertain to the development of empathic understanding. The interviewer communicates respect for people being interviewed by giving them the courtesy of explaining why questions are being asked. The point of feeding back to the interviewee how the interview is going, and by offering a few words of thanks, support or praise the interviewer makes the respondent see how worthwhile the process is. Two further attributes convey how the interviewer values respondents and their contributions are minimal encouragement/ silence and paralanguage.

 

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Lesson 3: THE TRANSPERSONAL APPROACH TO INTERVIEWS


Transpersonal refers to that which goes beyond the personal level. In this context, the word personal refers to the mask our personality wears in the world or to the everyday, ordinary I am ness. The personal level has to do with the realms of the ego and the thinking mind whereas the transpersonal level has to do with the trans-rational state we can recognize when we go beyond the limited and rational person that we usually identify with and are trapped in. Really, the word transpersonal refers to that which is spiritual. There is a connection with Emotional Intelligence. Emotional Intelligence (EQ) plays a key role in hiring employees who are competent and achieve a high degree of success in their roles. A person with a high regard for social and emotional skills has the ability to work well with others, accomplish organizational goals and be effective in business and social settings. Below are some tips to consider the next time you are interested in hiring an applicant who demonstrates social emotional intelligence competencies. When hiring for EQ, identify what you are looking for in an applicant, signs that indicate a “red flag,” (e.g., criticizing others they have worked with and/or demonstrating poor social skills or impulse control in the interview), and the hiring method you will use.

 

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Lesson 4: INTUITION

Intuition is different things to different people and is described very differently from person to person. How it is described is very individual. Some people feel it by interpreting body signs. Some people describe it as instant knowing. Some people get it in a dream. Everyone has a different intuitive language and it is important to know how it speaks to you. Call it whatever you want, a sixth sense, or a gut feeling. Call it your instincts or just plain intuition. Our mind picks up on things that can’t easily be defined. Whenever we interact with people, we are picking up on imperceptible messages that give us a feeling that isn’t necessarily based on fact. Did you ever have a conversation with someone who drained you of your energy? For reasons that you can’t explain, being around that person felt heavy and tiring? Have you ever been near a person that gives you the opposite feeling? You walk away with a feeling of lightness, like they just took some of their happy mood and added it to you?

 

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Lesson 5: CLINICAL APPROACH TO INTERVIEWING – PART 1

The clinical interview is a technique pioneered by Jean Piaget, in 1975, to study the form of knowledge structures and reasoning processes. In the last twenty-five years, it has evolved into a variety of methods, including open ended interviews and think aloud problem solving protocols. These techniques have played key roles in seminal studies in science and mathematics education as well as developmental psychology. Their strengths, in comparison to nonclinical, data gathering techniques, include the ability to collect and analyze data on mental processes at the level of a subject's authentic ideas and meanings, and to expose hidden structures and processes in the subject’s thinking that could not be detected by less open ended techniques. These abilities are especially important because of Piaget's discovery that people have many interesting knowledge structures and reasoning processes that are not the same as academic ones. They have alternative conceptions and use non formal reasoning and learning processes. Mapping this hidden world of indigenous thinking is crucial for the success of instructional design. Students cannot help but use their own prior conceptions and reasoning processes during instruction, and they have strong effects on the course of instruction. Since tests are almost always written from the point of view of the academic and are designed to detect standard forms of academic knowledge, they can fail to detect key elements in students' thinking.

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Lesson 6: CLINICAL APPROACH TO INTERVIEWING – PART 2

Harry Stack Sullivan was a brilliant pioneer in the elaboration of the psychiatric interview process. He used an interactive and sometimes confrontational interview style. In fact, he commented, “I do not believe that I have had an interview with anybody in 25 years in which the person to whom I was talking was not annoyed during the early part of the interview by my asking stupid questions.” Sullivan's style was based upon a concept of the expert client relationship in which the goal was for the patient to leave the interview with some measure of increased clarity about himself and his living with other people. In contrast to his own interview style, Sullivan was opposed to a one sided interrogation in which questions are asked and answered without any attention given to the subject's insecurities and no clue given to the meaning of the information elicited. Sullivan opposed this question and answer technique and asserted that it cannot work to assess, a person's assets and liabilities in terms of his future living. He also noted that the patient comes to the interview with some expectation of improvement or other personal gain from the experience. These high expectations can be useful to motivate the patient toward clinical improvement.

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Lesson 7: INTERVIEWING CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS

A number of issues arise when evaluators interview children. This section focuses on the uniqueness of interviewing children for these evaluations, emphasizing the important developmental considerations in planning the child interview, and delineating some age appropriate interviewing techniques. When working with children, most clinicians use a play setting because it is recognized that play allows children to more clearly express what they know and feel. Most children are not able to use language to communicate their feelings as effectively as adults. The first step in interviewing children is getting clarity about your purpose. It is recommended that you make a list of any possible biases that you may have regarding the issues involved in the child's life. By being aware of what you know and feel about the situation prior to starting interviews, you can make an effort to keep the biases from tainting your judgment. Then determine what you need to learn from individuals so that you can begin a framework for your questions. Parental interviews should provide information about the child's history as well as clarify each parent's view of the child. It is best to view children within a frame work of total life experience. If possible, it helps to know the social, physical, and cultural aspects of the child's life.

 

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Lesson 8: INTERVIEWING FOR SPECIFIC CONDITIONS


Interviewing an elderly person for an open job position can be awkward for a younger manager. It's often difficult to relate to a person much older than you or to imagine being his/her manager. Instead, focusing on the wisdom and experience the candidate can bring to your company can make the interview flow smoothly. What do they offer? According to the U.S. Department of Labor report "The Aging Baby Boom: Implications for Employment and Training Programs," the number of aging workers in need of jobs is growing dramatically. Hard economic times have people working well past their planned retirement ages, although it's sometimes difficult for elderly people to find good paying jobs. When interviewing an older adult for an open position, pay attention to the areas where their strengths tend to lie, which are typically experience, wisdom and work ethic, according to AARP. While an older person might be perfectly qualified to perform the job duties you need, it's possible he/she may need a few concessions during the interview. For example, many older adults have begun to lose their hearing, so be patient if they ask you to repeat your question.

 

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Lesson 9: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Interviews are among the most familiar strategies for collecting qualitative data.
The different qualitative interviewing strategies in common use emerged from diverse disciplinary perspectives resulting in a wide variation among interviewing
approaches. Unlike the highly structured survey interviews and questionnaires used in most health services research, less structured interview strategies in which the person interviewed is more a participant in meaning making than a conduit from which information is retrieved. Interviews are a data collection strategy used across many disciplines. In this research, different formats of qualitative interviews with a focus on in depth interviews are presented. In depth interviews can be used to understand complex social issues that are relevant to health care settings.
The integration of qualitative research into clinical research in the 1970s and 1980s introduced many distinct formats of qualitative interviews that greatly expanded the process of data collection and the depth of information being gathered. This research explores qualitative interviews and emphasizes the individual in depth interview.

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Lesson 10: PANEL AND GROUP INTERVIEWS

There you sit alone in front of the room, waiting for the assembled strangers to attack you with interview questions. It's really not quite that bad. In fact, there is an upside to panel interviews. You'd probably have to talk to each of these people individually at some point in the process this way, you get it over all at once. Panel or board interviews are often characterized by a standard set of questions for all applicants. Typically formal and organized, this interview format is often used in academia and government or for high level executives. Occasionally, you’ll encounter a panel interview for other positions in a company. Because of their unique dynamics and the stress they can cause unprepared interviewees, you should learn a little about why and how companies conduct panel interviews. Although you may never feel totally at ease in an atmosphere where you are getting questions from every side, you'll perform better if you know more about the process in advance.

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